||Mallee vegetation covered 383,000 square kilometres of Australia but 35% of that has been cleared (Federal Dpt Environment and Heritage, http://audit.ea.gov.au/anra/vegetation). Remnant mallee occurs as isolated fragments throughout Australia's wheat and sheep producing lands, and harbours important biodiversity. However, altered fire regimes are potentially a serious threat to the survival of species in isolated mallee remnants. Single large fires could burn out entire remnants, eliminating fire sensitive species, or complete fire suppression could eliminate early successional species. Because remnants are isolated, there would be no opportunity for recolonisation resulting in widespread species declines. Our broad aim is to develop solutions to the problems posed by altered fire regimes in remnant vegetation. We plan to conduct a large-scale replicated experiment examining the response of plant and animal species to fire and fire frequency, and to examine the role of refuges in the recovery of populations after fire. The mechanism of recolonisation after fire is poorly understood, but knowledge of the mechanism is critical for the development of fire regimes that will conserve biodiversity in production landscapes. We will focus on remnant mallee ecosystems on the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. Observations were conducted at Hincks, Hambridge, Munyaroo, Heggaton and Pinkawillinie Conservation Park from 2004-2006.